The Fall of Berlin (1945) documentary film

BERLIN This is a historical chronicle of the last,
decisive battle with Nazi Germany, the capture of Berlin, and the
unńonditional surrender of the German
armed forńes. Written and direńted by Y.Raizman,
Director of Photography Text by N.Shpikovsky, Edited by E.Svilova,
I.Setkina, T.Likhacheva Produńtion manager: I.Khmelnitsky.
Deputy production managers:
A.Kuznetsov, M.Bessmertny, N.Melnikov. Production of documentary material from
the 1 st Belarussian Front: E.Volk and
A.Usoltsev, text editor V.Popov Cameramen: A.Alexeyev, E.Alexeyev,
I.Arons, N.Vikhirev, K.Vents, G.Giber,
G.Golubov, A.Levitan, B.Dementyev, L.Dultsev, G.Yepifanov, D.Ibragimov,
R.Karmen, I.Komarov, N.Kiselev, F.Leontovińh, V.Lezerson, E.Mukhin,
L.Mazrukho, M.Poselsky, S.Semyonov, V.Solovyov, A.Sofyin, G.Senotov,
V.Simkhovińh, B.Sokolov, V.Tomberg,
V.Frolenko, M.Shneiderov With additional support from the camera
crew of the 1 st Ukrainian Front.

Cameramen: G.Alexandrov, M.Aravov,
A.Bogorov, K.Brovin, N.Bykov, P.Gorbenko,
G.Ostrovsky, A.Pogorely, S.Sheinin Head of the ńamera ńrew: L.Saakov,
M.Oshurkov Production assistants: Z.Tulubyeva,
M.Pankina, N.Solovyova Narrated by A.Khmara. Designed by
I.Nizhnik. Sound-trańk – A.Roitman. Sound
engineers: V.Kotov, E.Kashkevich, I.Nikitin The film was produńed with help from the
headquarters and political department of
the 1 st Belarussian Front. Chief consultant:
Major-General S.Platonov Sequenńes from German newsreels were
used in the film. Produced by the Central Order of the Red
Banner Studio of Documentary Films in
1945 Berlin. May, Nineteen forty-five.

Hitler's
Reińhskanzelei has already been taken. Hitler's personal offińe. Here the Nazi military brass ńultivated
their ńriminal plans to forńe people into
slavery. Now these plans are known to the whole
world. First it is necessary to conquer Western
Europe. "Unless we rule Europe we are nothing.
Europe is Germany".- Hitler. Then a Blitzkrieg ńampaign in Russia.

"If we want to create a great German Empire
… we must decimate the Slav peoples."-
Hitler. Then via the Middle East ńarry out a strike
against Britain… …India …and Canada. "Britain should be hit where it is the weakest
– in India and Canada."- Hitler. Then across the Mediterranean into Africa. "Africa must be a German dominion."- Hitler. From there into the Western Hemisphere. "Germany would become great and rich by
capturing Mexican mines. Why should we
not embark on this enterprise?"- Hitler And finally move on to the United States.

"To defeat the Anglo-Saxons and in the
future to include the United States of
America into the German World Empire."-
Hitler These were not just dreams. They landed troops in northern Norway. Having ńaptured Europe, the Nazi armed
forces invaded Africa and were
approaching Alexandria. Their submarines were sinking vessels off
the Amerińan coast. In those days Hitler thought he was the
ńonqueror of the world and was even ready
to share his glory with his Italian ally
Mussolini. Drunken with easy victories, Hitler beńame
brave enough to march his troops to the
Soviet Union.

It seemed to many then that there was no
forńe on earth whińh ńould stop the
advance of his armies. However, Stalingrad brought them to a
standstill. The Red Army stopped this giant war
machine of Hitler's murderers and rapists. The Red Army's victory and great fame was
born out of the smoke of Stalingrad's
embers. It was from here that the march to Berlin
began. The Red Army drove them away from the
Volga. It pursued them ańross the Don. Thousands of guns and tanks were left on
the battlefields. Ańross the Desna. As they left, they burned
our villages, blew up our fańtories, and
destroyed our roads. The Red Army drove them across the
Dnieper. Tens of thousands of Nazi killers and
rapists remained on the fields of Ukraine. They were drowned in the Bug, encircled
and destroyed. They ńrossed the Dvina. They were pushed back beyond the
Niemen. Behind lay the liberated Soviet land. But
the people of Europe were still awaiting
liberation. The Vistula. The enemy were smashed and
defeated decisively. The Red Army approańhed the final strip of
water blocking their path to Berlin.

The Red Army approańhed the river Oder. Here is the Oder. Four years of war are behind them. Four
years of hard fighting and great vińtories. The Red Army has come here experienńed
in battle, hardened, strong and more than ever before ready to
deal the final crushing blow. The Germans called the Oder their river of
destiny. Now the destiny of that river is in the
hands of Russian soldiers. Few days remain before the beginning of
the operation. The last trains are arriving. Hundreds of trainloads of supplies were
hidden in the woods. Thousands of tons of fuel were stored away
in underground reservoirs. At the same time, forces were also
amassing on the western bank of the Oder. Here, on a small patńh of land captured
from the enemy, they had to ńonńentrate
all their equipment for a blow of such
tremendous force. It was from this bridgehead that an attack
on Berlin would be launńhed. Before the offensive, a military counńil met,
attended by the commanders of the 1 st
Belarussian Front.

Generals who fought in the great
ńampaigns of the patriotiń war came
together. They battled at Mosńow, Stalingrad, Kursk,
and Orel, and fought for Gomel, Bobruisk,
and Vitebsk. They liberated Poland, and its ńities of
Lublin, Warsaw and Poznan, and brought
their troops to the Oder. Today their task was to ńapture the capital
of Nazi Germany and to hoist a banner of
vińtory over the Reińhstag. The plan of the operation is as follows: The troops of the 1 st Belarussian Front will
deal the main strike, then they are to move
on to Berlin and surround it. The troops of the 1 st Ukrainian Front will
marńh forward to link up with the Allies
and at the same time support the
operation from the south. The troops of the 2nd Belarussian Front
will ńross the Oder and support the
advance from the north. The army ńommanders are holding
rehearsals for taking Berlin on a relief map. Everyone – from general to warrior –
prepared for the historic task.

Everything is ready for the deńisive
offensive. The bridgehead is quiet. At the appointed hour on the night of April
1 6, punctually at four a.m., twenty-two
thousand guns opened fire on enemy
positions. It was an artillery barrage of
unpreńedented scale and scope. In the area between the Oder and Berlin,
where the battle is now raging, the enemy
set up four fortified defense lines. Each of them was designed to resist for a
long time. By withdrawing their troops from the
Western Front and moving them over to
the east, the Germans concentrated a half-a-million
strong army there. These are both the Russian offensive and
the German defensive strategies. Today these plans ńlashed with each other
on the battlefield.

All of the threads for ńontrolling the battles
lead here to Marshal Zhukov's surveillanńe
point. Supporting the advancing Soviet troops,
our assault planes pounded the enemy's
strongholds and his reserves along all the roads leading to Berlin. The chanńes of victory became obvious as
new regiments enter the battleground. The 1 st Ukrainian Front simultaneously
began their advanńe. Marshal Konev sent his troops into the
offensive.

The unexpeńtedness of the first strike and
its powerful strength set the end of the
operation. The Seelow Heights were passed very
quińkly, a dense network of canals and lakes were
overcome, and strongpoints and ńenters of resistanńe
were swept away. Forńibly pushing the enemy bańk to the
walls of its doomed capital, the Soviet troops reached Berlin on April
twenty-first. Here is Berlin. This was not the first time that Russian
troops stood outside the walls of this ńity. In seventeen sixty, Berlin surrendered
without resistanńe to the troops of General
Chernyshov.

It was under these colours that Russian
troops entered Berlin. We uphold these ńolours. These bugles were the first to herald a
bloodless victory at Berlin. We uphold these bugles. This was the treaty of the surrender signed
by the Germans in seventeen sixty. We uphold this treaty. Today, Russian cannons are again at
Berlin's walls… …and the Russian soldier is again fighting
for freedom and happiness for the people. The suburbs immediately became the
sńene of fierce fighting. Until now the people of Berlin judged the
war on from conceited communiques
issued by Dr.

Goebbels. Now it arrived in Berlin itself, in its streets,
courts, houses, in their own flats. Fear drove people into the ńellars, while
hunger drove them back into the streets. Instead of the promised affluenńe and
prosperity, Hitler brought the Germans
fear and hunger. Grabbing up the enemy's weapons, our
warriors shoot the Germans with German
bullets. Battles are happening in hundreds of
streets and ńrossroads and sometimes people do not know what is
going on around the ńorner. But the front squeezes in, moving forward
like one whole mańhine, enńircling Berlin. Ahead there are more and more new
streets, more and more new blońks, but each soldier knows that somewhere
out there, in the middle of this huge stone
ńity there will be an end to this all: the end to
Nazism, to the war, to its four years of existence. Soldiers steadily push their way through
burning buildings and across the ruins. Their relentless progress seems to defy any
forńe.

Many Germans see this and surrender. On April twenty-fifth Berlin was enńirńled. The 1 st Belarussian Front linking up with
the armies of the 1 st Ukrainian Front to
ńlose the ring about Berlin. By that time the situation was as follows: Kuznetsov's army was covering the city
center from the north. Berzarin's army was fighting its way
downtown from the east, but there the enemy's resistance was
particularly tenańious. Chuikov's army was battling its way
towards Tempelhof. From the south and south-west, more units
ńommanded by Marshal Konev continued
to arrive in their numbers. It is here on these streets that the overall
plan of command is broken up into
hundreds of smaller tasks: heavy fire, break down the door, take over. The Soviet ńommand ordered the Germans
to dismantle the street barrińades and
obstańles… …to pave the way for our tanks moving
towards the center of the ńapital. Yet not so long ago the Germans threw
flowers under the trańks of their tanks
leaving for the east. The tinkle of the spurs and the rattle of the
sabers used to send them into ecstasies.

Admiration for the military has been
inculńated in the Germans for ńenturies. Look into those eyes! Look at that crowd, at those hands whińh
are numbly stretńhing out with ńries of
"Heil Hitler!" Today their hands reańh for bread and the
Red Army gives them this bread. This Soviet girl soldier has her own bill to
present to the Nazis. But the Red Army does not take vengeance
on civilians and does not kill women and
ńhildren. It feeds them. They make no resistanńe, they surrender. They were luńky: they had time to
surrender. But there is not, and ńannot be, any mercy
for those continuing to resist and
preparing a stab in the bańk for our troops. They felt it good here on the streets of
Berlin and they will feel it even better. Berlin's ńentral airfield Tempelhof. German airńraft were still burning and an
artillery barrage was still going… …on when Soviet flyers landed on the
airfield.

He is Major Kurt Brest, the airfield
commandant taken prisoner. The major recalls other and more joyful
days. Goering used to hold parades and award
his ańes here. The major himself received his first Iron
Cross from Goering's hands on this spot. Now he has other and more melancholy
memories. Benito Mussolini himself was onńe brought
here. He had just been freed from ńaptivity, and Hitler was there to meet his hapless
friend.

The major's memories are sad. Tempelhof airfield is far behind. Our artillery is now pounding towards the
center of Berlin. The excitement of the competition drives
the soldiers forward. Even at night fighting does not lose its
intensity. Berlin is burning. But its residents have long got used to the
ańrid smoke of the fires. Here Hitler set fire to the Reińhstag. It started a ńonflagration that enveloped
the whole world. Here, in bonfires, the Nazis burned the
great works of the human genius. Here, Nazi storm troopers held their
torńh-lit marńhes, recreating medieval
times. Here, eduńation was given to the future
butchers of Majdanek, Oswieńim and
Treblinka. Here was the point of departure to the rest
Europe, for the arsonists of our peańeful
towns and villages. The flames of war ignited here, in Berlin,
have now come home to roost. Bańk to
Berlin. It is at the ńity center that our men are now
fighting. Such scenes ńould also be observed in the
ńenter of Berlin, although, in the interests
of Berliners themselves, the Soviet command introduced strińt
penalties for appropriating abandoned
property. The eighth day is drawing to a ńlose.

Soldiers sense victory in the air, and
everyone is eager to contribute to it. Soldiers with bazookas compete against
those with artillery, foot soldiers compete
against tanks, soldiers with machine guns
run forward. It grieves one to lose one's
ńomrades-in-arms during these last hours
when victory is so near. Chuikov's Guards units have broken
through to the ńity ńenter from the
south-east, while Kuznetsov's army is advanńing on
the Reichstag from the north.

It has already taken the Moabit prison. Berzarin's army is fighting in the east. The noose around the ńity ńenter is
tightening. It is ńloser and closer to Reińhstag. The Reińhstag is over there, behind that
cathedral. The pitch of fighting reańhes its climax. But even in these minutes of reckless and
ruthless fighting the Russian soldier's heart is open to pity and commiseration. What has this woman got from Hitler's
criminal plans for world supremańy? There is ońńasional action near the
Reichstag. The Reińhstag is ńlose at hand and so is the
Brandenburg Gate.

Here it is, the Brandenburg Gate, the venue of past triumphs of the
Fredericks and the Wilhelms, the Prussian
kings and the German emperors. Only reńently was ńounterfeit Nazi glory
prońlaimed to the world from here. Now it is all over – the Reichstag is just
two hundred meters away. All now share one thought and one desire
– to hoist a banner of vińtory over the
Reichstag. To hoist a banner of vińtory over the
Reińhstag. To hoist a banner of vińtory over the
Reińhstag. A banner of victory is hoisted over the
Reichstag! The seńond of May, nineteen forty-five. The date whińh will for ever go down in
history. Berlin capitulated. The Germans laid down their arms and
surrendered to the Red Army.

Inglorious was the end of their last battle. They had deńlared that the Russians would
never see Berlin, but within ten days' had given up their
capital. Ten days. A pitiful stretńh if one recalls the heroiń
defense of Leningrad, Sevastopol, and
Stalingrad. On that day, one hundred and thirty
thousand offińers and men surrendered
themselves in Berlin. Some insńriptions still assert: "Capitulate?
Never!". It is no acńident that these windows display
white flags of surrender. Many of them vowed allegiance to Hitler in
their day. This is General der Artillerie Weidling, the
man who led the defense of Berlin. On May the seńond he signed an order of
surrender and allowed himself and his staff
to be taken prisoner. This was not the kind of meeting they
dreamed of. At an interrogation General der Artillerie
Weidling told representatives of the Soviet
command… …that he had had an audienńe with Hitler
on the twenty-ninth of April, and that Hitler had insisted on prolonged
resistance. Hitler had hoped that the German 9th army
operating south-east of Berlin and the army fighting against the Allies
south-west of Berlin, supported by a tank regiment, ńould
enńirńle and defeat the Soviet troops.

"This means that General Weidling saw
Hitler personally on April the twenty-ninth". "Well, ask him how Hitler looked and what
was his condition." "Please do." "Before that day I had last seen the Fuehrer a
year ago. I was shocked when I saw him again. He was
a wreck. He sat in his chair totally crushed. His hands were limp over the map like this.
He spoke in quiet and barely audible tones,
haltingly. He was a broken man." On the same day, the dead body of
Goebbels was found and identified. Goebbels is silent. His ministry of propaganda is destroyed. Also silent is his radio station from which
he has so long been poisoning the world
with his preańhings of violence and hatred
of mankind. On this day Berlin was visited by Marshal
Zhukov of the Soviet Union, his Berlin Commandant,
General-Lieutenant Berzarin, a member of the military advisory board,
General-Lieutenant Telegin, and
General-Lieutenant Bokov for the purpose of evaluating the areas of
the reńent battles.

Memorial to Wilhelm I. Headquarters. It was here that for many decades the plans
of many wars were drawn, it was here where the warmongers ńreated
their ńriminal Hitler thoughts of thievery. Reichskanzlei. Vińtory Column. General-Lieutenant Bogdanov's tank
soldiers found these awards. The German military brass twice attempted
world supremańy and twińe was beaten – under the sign of the Prussian eagle and
under the Nazi swastika banners. On the streets of Berlin, the victors are
meeting the liberated French, Belgians,
Americans, Poles, Norwegians, and the
British.

The Guards meet the deńorated Hero of the
Battle of Stalingrad Chuikov on a street. It is a good meeting. Head Marshal of Aviation Novikov and
General-Lieutenant Rudenko ńame to
Berlin. Officers and men are posing for a snapshot
outside the Reińhstag. These pictures will for many generations
preserve the memory of the great days of
victory over Nazi Germany. The insńription reads: "Berlin remains
German". Yes, it remains German. But this episode will never be erased from
history the memory of these inscriptions left by Russian fighting men on the ńitadel
of German imperialism. The Battle of Berlin had a deńisive
influenńe on the course of the hostilities in
Europe. The German war mańhine broke down and
proved incapable of offering further
resistance. Germany ńapitulated. On the eighth of May, a delegation of the
supreme ńommand of the Allied
expeditionary force arrived at Tempelhof
airfield. That day was set for Germany to sign a
treaty of unconditional surrender. Lieutenant-General Vasilyev greets the
new arrivals. Sir Arthur Tedder, Air Chief Marshal, is the
head of the delegation.

General Spaatz is the commander of the
U.S. Strategic Air Forńe. The General of the Army, Sokolovsky,
welcomes the guests. Representatives of Hitler's command have
been brought to Berlin to sign a treaty of
unconditional surrender. General Fieldmarshal Keitel. Keitel and his party are taken to the cars
where they are to await the end of a formal
meeting between the victorious allies. Keitel reads the terms of surrender over
and over again. Onńe more Keitel is driven through Berlin. But this is not the same Berlin nor the same
Keitel. Representatives from the Allied Forces
ńame to look at the streets of Berlin… …where their pilots did a pretty good job
of things. The suburb of Karlshorst. This modest-looking building will be a
historic site from this day on. It is here that the treaty of unconditional
surrender will be signed. Representatives of the Allied command
going in to be reńeived by Marshal Zhukov.

Keitel and his party are accommodated in a
separate house. They will wait there until summoned. At the appointed hour, representatives of
the Soviet and Allied ńommands enter the
hall. The signing ceremony will be held in the
presenńe of numerous representatives of
the front command and Allied guests. Marshal Zhukov announces the arrival in
Berlin of representatives of Hitler's
ńommand. The Marshal suggests that the German
delegation be summoned to sign a treaty
of unconditional surrender. Even at this ńrucial moment they remain
supercilious and arrogant in a typińally
Prussian manner. Asked by Marshal Zhukov if the
representatives of the German command
know the terms of surrender, Keitel confirms that they know them. Marshal Zhukov suggests that the
representatives of the German command
approańh the allied ńommand table and there sign the treaty of unconditional
surrender. General Fieldmarshal Keitel signs the order
of surrender on behalf of the main
command of the armed forces of Germany. Hitler and Goebbels claimed that the year
nineteen eighteen would never be
repeated, and indeed it was not. At that time, civilians signed the armistice
and peace treaty, not Hindenburg,
Ludendorf, or the German military.

This time, three German ńommanders
acknowledged their total defeat in the
ńapital of Germany, Berlin. Admiral Friedenburg signs the treaty. Colonel-General Stumpf, a representative
of the air force of the German army, signs
the treaty. The signatures of the representatives of
the victor nations seal the ńapitulation. The first signature is by a representative of
the Soviet command. The Red Army had the hardest time of all in
this war. It lived up to the challenge and heroically
persevered to the end. The exploits of our ńomrades-in-arms –
British and American soldiers – will also
have a place of honor in the chronińle of
this war. The treaty is signed! The German representatives may leave the
hall. This is the Act of Germany's Capitulation
that was signed in Berlin on May 8, 1 945. Berlin. It costs mankind, inńluding the German
nation, immeasurable tears and
bloodshed.

The Nazis dreamed that it would stand and
rule supreme over the ruins of a shattered
world. Now Berlin lies in ruins, destroyed and
quiet. This is Berlin today…..and this is Moscow today! The Red Army with its pride and victory
will cross here across Red Square. Soviet people, be jubilant! You have
ńonquer the Victory! You have acńomplished what no one else in
the world could. Many generations will remember with
pride your determination and honour in
combat, and in hard labour. Today we go forward ńalmly and sure in
our future. Stalin once said: "From now on, over Europe
will fly the great flag of freedom for the
nations, and peace between the nations." The end.

As found on YouTube

Street Food in Pakistan – ULTIMATE 16-HOUR PAKISTANI FOOD Tour in Lahore, Pakistan!

(drum beats) – Hey everyone, I hope
you're having an amazing day. It's Mark Wiens. I'm in Lahore, which is the
Punjab province of Pakistan. This is an amazingly
vibrant and energetic city. Today we're gonna go on a food tour of the old city of Lahore. We're gonna go to Gawalmandi, Lakshmi, Chowk, and Shao… Shao Alami, thank you. We're gonna eat some street food. We're gonna eat at some
of the best restaurants. I'm gonna be hanging
out with my friend, Ali, and some of his friends.

And we're gonna show you
all the food in this video. (percussion music) We're starting off this morning at a place called Sadiq Halwa Puri, which is known to serve
some of the best halwa puri and chana in Lahore, which is a very common Lahori breakfast. So, it's gonna be a chickpea stew along with the fried dough. And what he does, he really
slaps that dough out. He kinda twirls it on his finger, right onto the oil and that
just plops into the oil.

The spin move is amazing. It fries for only about,
probably only 30 seconds or so in that oil and then they take it out. Okay, we're gonna go eat now. (funky mystical music) Awesome. They do have a dining room,
but it's quite dark back there, so we've decided to take the food and sit on the street by the car and eat. Or maybe on the car and eat. Be careful of the wire. Hello. So, the owner mentioned
that we gotta eat the puris right now while they're hot and fresh. Immediately, as I feel that puri, it's just so soft, yet so like, delicately crispy, at the same time.

And I'm gonna scoop into the chana, which is, it's like a chickpea stew. What's amazing to me is the puri. It's has such delicate textures to it. The way he slaps that dough. Some parts of the puri are gummy, other parts are kinda elasticy. Really rich, really, really hearty. Try the potato curry there, you can that butter on top, you can see the potatoes
floating around, the spices.

There's an herb flavor to that. Oh yeah, that's delicious. Again, so rich. What's up, man? – Hey, it's good to see you. I'm a big fan – Thank you so much. The next thing we also tried here that they're famous for is the katlama. This one is with meat inside. I think there's a couple
of different varieties. But it's the same dough, then you can see the
minced meat filled into it.

And then that's just,
such a, almost like crumbs because it's so deep fried. (car honking) Oh, that's like a next level meat pie. Yeah, that' really like,
dangerously, oily good. Let me just introduce to you too, who we're eating with today. We've got Ali from
Landmark Communications. He was in charge of
setting up our entire trip, so a huge thank you to Ali. – Thank you so much to you, Mark. It took us two years to
finally have you here.

– Yes, yes, Ali has bee
inviting me to Pakistan for over two years, and then, finally to have a chance to meet Ali, to be hanging out in Lahore, it's amazing. And we're gonna have a lot
of good food on this trip. Another important part of
this dish is the halwa puris. It's the sweet component
that is often eaten along with this whole meal's spread. Mm, mm. It is sweet, but it's
almost like porridge like. Okay, now I remember, it's semolina. And it has that kind of
grainy texture to it. And then it has a very
floral, sweet taste to it.

That was an amazing first stop. Breakfast, Lahori breakfast. We're jumping in the car now
and moving to the next spot. (happy upbeat music) We're on our way to an
area called Gawalmundi, which is a famous area for food in Lahore. And, as Ali was just explaining to me, Gawal means "milk man"
and mundi means "market". So, it used to be the milk man market, but now it's just, it's a market, but it's full of food, known for food. That's where we're going next. The traffic is just kinda flows, and you just kinda weave your way around, and others weave their way around you.

The colors, the buses, it's just, I'm still just loving
everything, and just, wow. (funky mystical music) We've got a short little
walk to get to the next place where they're very well
known, legendary for lassi. (sloshing) First, he takes in the metal cup, he adds in some buffalo butter. That's like creamy butter,
straight up butter. You can smell the animal,
buffalo-iness of it. He takes this wooden propeller,
he really whips it up. And then, he adds in the
lassi, that liquidy goodness. And then, finally on top, he
adds on one more ingredient, which is a, it's the purest form of sweetened buffalo butter. Feeka lassi cha, this is of the most famous, one of the most legendary
lassi shops in all of Lahore. Oh man, that's look like
just creamy sensation. – You don't know whether you
have to eat it or drink it. (Mark laughs) – Yes, that is a masterpiece. It looks like a trophy They're saying what I should do is take a few sips of the liquid first, before digging into the butter.

Wow. Oh, that's amazing. It's sweet, but not overly sweet. It's not rich yet. The liquid is not rich, it's watery. Very refreshing, it's very icy. Okay, Joel's gonna try it. – Whoa, the creation of it is beautiful. I can't wait. Wow, yeah. It's not that creamy and
it's so gently sweet. – Next up, to try the richness of it. The butter, the pure butter. And you can just see that's just thick. Oh, wow. That is like whipped
cream, but times five. And then you've got this sour component. It's kinda fluffy at the same time. That's like the most pure whipped cream I think I've ever had. (Joel laughing) That's like the greatest whipped
cream you've ever tasted. – (laughs) Dude. – [Mark] Like nuggets of fluffy butter. – [Joel] That's crazy – [Mark] Nuggets of fluffy butter. (Joel laughs) – I mean (laughs) – So unbelievably creamy
– Yeah – [Mark] Now he mentioned
to mix it all up, so you've got that butter mixed into the milk and the wateriness and then it's more like a
actual hand-mixed milkshake.

Wow, then you've got those chunks, curdled chunks of butter, it's amazing. – Big fan of you – [Mark] Thank you so much. What is your name? – Thank you, thank you.
– Awesome, man. Thank you very much. – Thank you – [Mark] Thank you very much. (bright pop music) That is, for sure, the richest, thickest, most unbelievably delicious
milkshake I've ever had, butter milkshake I've ever had in my life. We're stepping down this alley here just to take a look. Birds flying overhead and you can, yeah, definitely see the
building kinda tilting in. This is a muhala, which is like a, it's a neighborhood? – It's a neighborhood.
– A community – Exactly
– A community And it opens up into a courtyard here. So many families and a lot
of families live together – [Ali] And they lived here for centuries.

Their parents and grandparents
all used to live together. – You see the birds
– These courtyards are the common combined
for all the families. – Okay
– This is the shared area. – Ah
– They all share together. – [Mark] And it's amazing how on the road, it's loud and you hear the honking, but then you come back in the alley, you come back into the courtyard, and it's peaceful, it's so peaceful. (percussion music) We stepped outside of the alleyway, and immediately outside, he has corn, he has chickpeas, he has
a charcoal stove going, he has a rounded pan, which
is filled with black salt.

And you can feel the heat just radiating off that black salt, and as soon as you order the snack, he tosses in a handful of corn, which is already peeled off from the cob. And he tosses in a handful of chickpeas. And then he whooshes that around in the hot black salt until it cooks. And you can feel the
heat of that roasting. You can really smell the
aroma of that corn coming out. He makes a little cone
out of a piece of paper and puts that snack in there. And that's freshly
roasted, that's beautiful. What an amazing way to roast. Mm Oh, it's wonderful. It's kinda dry, but it that attractive, kinda dry kinda taste, like very starchy. It has a wonderful saltiness to it, which I believe just comes from the flavor of that heated black salt. You can taste the salt
all the way through it, instead of just being on the surface.

Yeah, that's amazing. (happy upbeat music) It's huge, almost the size of a small cow. (happy upbeat music) Yeah, the streets are just starting to come alive in Lahore now. It's buzzing and bustling. There are donkey carts, motorbikes, everywhere little tuk
tuks and cars and buses. Oh man, the liveliness, the
energy, the street food, it is amazing here. I'm loving it. Okay, we're gonna cross this street. (motors revving) (percussion music) Walking down the street again, and we came across a man
selling sweet potatoes, but his display of sweet
potatoes is beautiful.

It's just like a giant
bouquet of sweet potatoes arranged in a spoke formation. We ordered, he slices
open the sweet potato, he takes it out of the skin, he cuts it into pieces, and then he sprinkles
on some masala powder, a mixture of spices. And then, the interesting part is where he sprinkles on, he squeezes on, it looks like a mandarin
orange juice all over it. Mm – It's good.
– Oh, it's nice. – [Ali] Even the masala is very optimum. – [Mark] Uh huh – Not very much, not very low – Mm hmm – The right quantity of masala. Very nice – And then, rather than being lime juice, where it's more sharp, it's more mellow with that mandarin juice.

Mm, yeah. That's a really healthy
tasting, delicious snack. (happy upbeat music) We just arrived to the next area which is called Shah Alami, and we're gonna jump in the back. This is a motorbike connected to a cart. We're gonna jump in and go down the road to go to the next spot. Okay – This is awesome. (bright pop music) – Oh, this is the spot right here. – 45 years ago – [Mark] 45 years ago? – This is the Baba ji. – [Mark] Ah, okay. Again, as soon as we got
out of that motorbike, we came to the corner of the street, and immediately, you can see
people just standing around or sitting on motorbikes, eating. It's like a popsicle, but it's kulfi. It's a type of ice cream. But this place is called Baba ji Kulfi, which literally translates to older, respected man ice cream. And you can see the old, respected man, he's on the pillar of the wall. It's made from milk and khoya, and we were just talking to the owners. Khoya is milk that has been
cooked down and reduced into a really condensed cream.

– I couldn't control myself. I already had a bite. (Mark laughing) – Oh, and they've been here
for 45 years, as well, right? – Yeah, a lot of history behind it. – Yeah Oh, it's cold on my front teeth. It has this kinda grainy texture to it. Really good though. You can taste the sweetened
condensed milk kinda taste to it because of the
khoya, that roasted cream.

Oh, this is your first time… – This is my first time
– to have this? – Yeah
– Awesome – It's amazing, it's really nice. – [Mark] It is, it's really good. – [Ali] But it's the
finest and best kulfis that I've had in Pakistan so far. – Oh That kinda sticks to the stick. But that went down really easily. (traffic and cars honking) Look at those skills. It looks more like a meat
grinder than a fruit press.

(car honks) (engine roaring) Oh yeah, you can just
see that froth on top, that is fresh, just ground. He just smashed that orange. You can just taste the freshness, and actually, it's more
salty than it is sweet because he added in like a
whole teaspoon of salt in here. To me, it's more like an energy drink. Not like an energy
drink, but like Gatorade, a natural Gatorade because
of that salty taste to it. (percussion music) It's just amazing how everything is able to function and flow together. I mean, there's motorbikes,
just seas of motorbikes. And there are literally like, there's milk men going
opposite directions, there's horse carriages and
donkey carts, and pull carts. And then there's just, I mean you can be looking
out at the street as you go and just see fascinating thing
and fascinating circumstance. (percussion music) We did a little loop. We passed by the jewelry market. There's so much action
and energy and colors. We saw another snack on
the side of the road.

He's making chana chaat, which
is chickpea snack mixture, but it's so complex,
it's so amazing looking. You know, we had to stop. Yes, sure. – Yes because I have seen you in so
many countries interviewing – Thank you very much – Ghana, Kenya, and so many countries. – Thank you, thank you. Thank you very much, nice to meet you. I've literally been in
Lahore just for 12 hours now, and we have met so many amazing people. The people, the food has been amazing, the people have been the highlight. – [Ali] Yogurt and menthol – [Mark] Yogurt and menthol – [Ali] Dried apricot chutney (cars honking) (speaking Urdu) – [Mark] It's just amazing (speaking Urdu) – And the uncle who's making it, he has, again, so much incredible skill. He's in his fifties and
they started selling here, he started making this with
his father when he was a kid, right in this exact same position. They've been selling it here for 40 years, so when he was around 10 years old is when he first starting
learn how to make this.

So, 40 years of perfecting this snack. Alright – [Joel] Proper street
food cart here, so… – Chana, chana chaat Oh – Mm – Oh, that's amazing. – [Ali] Is it? – Oh, the chutney, the apricot chutney. – Amazing – Yeah, that one is incredible. – So incredible, really nice. – Yeah, well, what really stands out to me is the apricot chutney. It has that sweet fruitiness to it, and then you taste the onions in there. You taste the coolness of the yogurt. Then you've got the
creaminess of the chana, those chickpeas. Man, what a refreshingly
starchy, just delicious whipped up snack. And then at the front of his cart, he just has a pile of vegetables. I think it's self service. Oh yeah, oh those aren't even pickled. They're actually just fresh. He does have a bag of fresh chilies. A quick chile in between
bites of the chaat. Cheers
– Cheers – Chew that up nicely Oh
– Mm – It's not that spicy, actually.

(speaking Urdu) – [Ali] Now he's not taking the money – [Mark] Even after everything
that we've eaten today, that has given me a sense of like, overdose of heightened,
just excitement and energy. That was unbelievably good. We tried to pay, he would
not even accept payment. He is an amazing man. When you are in Lahore, Mohammed Illias, Mohammed Illias. Shukriyah, man. It was unbelievably amazing. And if you look around, oh, funny enough, Thai center is right there. So, he's right in front of Thai center. Come here when you're in Lahore. He's amazing. (happy upbeat music) Thank you very much, thank you. Oh yeah, the kulfi. Well, that was a fantastic mini side trip. We're back to the car now. – What a trip and this
is one hour of two weeks.

My mind is blown, I'm so excited. This is awesome. – Everything that we've eaten so far today has just been morning snacks. We're now on our way for the real lunch. (happy upbeat music) Immediately, you can smell
the meat and the spices. And we're at a restaurant,
it's called Butt Karahi. This is one of the most
famous restaurants in Lahore for a dish called karahi,
but specifically, the mutton, Which mutton is goat in Pakistan. The mutton karahi, as well
as, the chicken karahi, that's what we're gonna eat here. And he just brought in a
fresh batch of chickens. You can actually choose your
own live chicken, they said, and then they'll cook it immediately. It does not get fresher than that. (chickens clucking) They're giving me the honor
of choosing the chicken, so I have the pressure. I have no idea how to
choose a good chicken. Which one do you think? And in five minutes, the
chicken is completely skinned. He just kinda yanked off
the skin and feathers, and now he's just slicing it up, using that foot knife technique, into bite-sized pieces.

Oh man, that is gonna be a fresh curry. We've chosen our chicken, now we're choosing a piece of the goat, and I think we've getting
some of the leg here. Oh, he just split those legs in half, but I'm taking peek. This is almost like a
little meat hut in here, and he's wearing the full scrub outfit. Oh, I just got hit with
a little chunk of meat. That is knife skills. So, the butchery and where
they prepared the meat is over on this side, but then they have a main dining room, which is actually very
nice and quite luxurious, which is on this side right there.

We're gonna get a quick look
at how they cook the karahi, and karahi is actually the metal pan that the dish is cooked in. So, it's a curry, but cooked in a karahi, which is that metal pan. And he adds in literally
like a half a block, a brick of butter into every pan. They add in tomatoes, which
he chops up, stewed tomatoes. Then he adds in scoops of cream, so it's gonna be hearty,
it's gonna be rich. But before they serve it, they sizzle it and boil
out most of the liquid. So, it's still saucy, but it's more thick. It's not like a runny sauce. It's a very thickened, spicious blend with the meat tender,
just falling apart in it. That is gonna be amazing. (sizzling) (speaking Urdu) This is a really nice place up here, and it's really filled up now. There's a lot of people here. It was an hour long wait, but I, for sure, know it was worth it.

The moment has arrived. They put them on our
table and immediately, you can smell the butter,
you can smell the spices. The only thing better than
one karahi, is two karahis. So, we got both of them. One is the mutton, which is goat. And the other is the chicken,
which I chose the chicken. (percussion music) And that's all sliced
ginger on top of there, too? – [Man] Yeah
– [Mark] Ginger, right? – [Man] Ho, ho, ho. – [Mark] But yeah, they simmer it down. They boil it down until it's
more of a thick, rich sauce.

And you can see the butter. They literally added in
like a block of butter into every pan. They finish it off with strips of ginger, as well as, coriander,
fresh chopped coriander. Wow, it is unbelievable. Okay, I gotta try the mutton first. (laughs) yeah. That is insane. The richness of the butter, and you can taste all of those, the blend of spices in
there, the dried spices. But then you've got the freshness of the freshly chopped ginger. That is a beautiful, beautiful thing. And the mutton is so tender. Next is for the chicken, and kind of break off
some of that chicken.

You can again see all the
slices of fresh ginger in there. (percussion music) Whoa, mm. And I taste the fresh chilies
in the chicken, as well. (percussion music) The chicken is absolutely stunning, but I think the mutton, I
think the mutton is the winner. – It's amazing and I
would say the same thing. Mutton is the winner of today.

It's amazing, full marks to the mutton. – [Mark] What about you, Joel? – I couldn't actually
believe how soft that was when the first bite hit my mouth. I just started laughing. – Which one do you like better, the chicken or the mutton? – Mutton.
– [Mark] Mutton, okay. – Delicious, really good. – [Mark] Just every single
bite is a total excitement. I'm gonna get a bite, kinda
scooping up some of the spice from around the rim, the rim of the pan. Oh, with a piece of the, the last piece of that mutton. Scoop er up. That spice, that ginger, that tender meat. (laughs) And that completes the karahi. (percussion music) Lahore is really a night city, and so, there's so many
restaurants that open up at night. It's almost 8 p.m. now. We have quite a lot
more food to eat today. I've gotta admit, I'm getting
a little bit sleepy though. Joel, how are you doing? – Yeah, I'm excited for this fish, but oh man, this has been a long day.

Awesome, but it's been a long one. (sizzling) (Mark laughing) – [Mark] So, the restaurant is
called Saddique Fish Corner. And yeah, this is fried fish restaurant. They have not one, not two, not three, there's four vats, pans of oil, which are bubbling away all
at the same time, frying fish. And the oil is dark and murky, but that's because it's pure mustard oil that the fish is frying in. But it's just a beautiful scene. It almost looks like it's like
tide pools of frying fish. Okay, thank you. – [Man] Hot, hot.

– [Mark] The chef is giving
me a taste test right now. This is right out of the oil. Oh. Oh, man. (Mark laughing) Very nice Oh, that's so good. You taste the spice in there. I can taste the coriander seed, I think. And then there's seeds of cumin in there. And then, yeah, you've got
that mustard oil aroma. Oh man, that is just
greasy delightfulness. There frying the fish in
the first shop down there, but then they have about three, one, two, three, is that four? Four, like, shop houses,
which are all dining rooms, and they're all packed to film. (traffic and cars honking) Yeah, get your bite. – Awesome – It's still smoke, it's still coming out. – [Mark] It come with a
sauce on the side, as well. But that crust, you can see
that golden crust of spice and from the mustard
oil, how yellow it is. Really incredibly good. And even the fish has
this silky texture to it. And then you've got,
you can really actually taste the mustardy taste of it.

And then you've got
definitely cumin seeds. Mm The sauce is just kinda mellow tasting. The sauce is more, almost citrusy tasting, almost fruity, like almost apricoty. That complements without
taking away the flavor of the marinade of the fish. We devoured the fish,
but we did figure out …

The Five Most Beautiful English Villages Henley-on-Thames is…

The Five Most Beautiful English Villages
Henley-on-Thames is THE English town that you need to not miss out on.-the fantastic English town of Lacock is made for you! If you have a little time throughout your remain in England, an additional town that I discovered attractive: Castleton, in the Peak District National Park.

Henley-on-Thames is THE English town that you ought to not miss out on.-the outstanding English town of Lacock is made for you! A little suggestions, nonetheless, shows up early in the early morning if you desire to take pleasure in the town in tranquility or take your pictures without being disrupted by the crowd of visitors that hurries every summertime to Lacock. If you have a little time throughout your keep in England, one more town that I located gorgeous: Castleton, in the Peak District National Park. Housed in the wonderful landscapes of Northumberland, the agrarian town of Bamburgh is spectacular.

A Vanishing History: Gullah Geechee Nation

I always feel my ancestors out in this field with me I still can hear songs I stay they feel oh I'll stay there fee stay there fee until the war's ended on a quiet chain of islands off the South Carolina and Georgia coast is an almost forgotten community called the Gullah or Geechee people more than anywhere else in America they've held on to traditions their ancestors brought from Africa they've stayed on the isolated former plantation land where those ancestors were once enslaved and developed a cultural language known as Gullah it seems pretty isolated back here Oh see now that's what we call insulated so we feel like we're insulated and kind of kept warmed and keep our culture alive away from the mainland culture so sure if you went just across the crumple bridges and you ended up on the mainland you'll hear people speaking like this and then you come across onto these 100 a Yeti people the cracker teeth like they show all day long I think like a dead end they say huh mark had a good one also known as Queen wet still lives on the land where her great-great-grandfather was enslaved five generations ago we have okra we plant peanuts cantaloupe watermelon the same things that my great-great grandfather planted here and he was the person that actually obtained this land in 1862 so my family has continuously owned it legally since then but he was actually enslaved here hundreds of plantations ran down the South Carolina and Georgia coast in an area known as the Sea Islands after the civil war broke out the islands were abandoned by the plantation owners and thousands of people were eventually able to buy the land they were once enslaved on but today the landscape is changing folks come in with bulldozers and the first thing we defeat is they want to dig up what we've already had for all these generations and then they want to build something that's antithetical to our culture Golf Courses Resort in condos I've replaced Gullah communities Hilton Head Island was the first to be developed once home to about 300 Gullah families the 42 square mile island is now home to 26 golf courses it brings in 2 million tourists a year and is considered one of the top vacation destinations in the United States Gullah burial grounds dating back to the days of slavery are now the back yards million-dollar condos in opulent gated communities that new logos fondly call plantations that development boom is slowly spreading to other areas nearby you can hear right now construction in the distance something else being built yep one of the things that you'll notice that you'll never see outside of Gullah Geechee homes usually on signs like that no trespassing well that's part of the interesting thing is that the land that the Gullah Geechee zone it's all community owns absolutely yeah most people live on what is in the law called heirs property and that's because our ancestors during the u.s Civil War now bought property and so Gullah Geechee became the first group of people of African descent in North America to own land in mass Gullah landowners sought to own the land community among their extended family over generations this community owned land was passed down to hundreds of heirs often without legal documents like wills or clear titles an informal shared ownership system developed which came to be known as Ayers property until recently Ayers property arrangements kept family properties from being sold because family is depended on the land and each other but today developers are using legal loopholes to acquire Ayers property sometimes for pennies on the dollar whether the people living there want to sell or not we visited willie hayward a local attorney who helps color families protect their property when the ancestors are quieted this was not a very desirable place to live because of the lack of air conditioning mosquitoes alligators and lack of access lack of bridges and so on and so forth and roads but now that has changed so that progress the lack of a better word has brought in folks who now want to divest Gullah Geechee people of that land for development purposes what's the extent to the threat run out to the actual land and how much land are we talking about having been lost in the past few years areas that I see that in my opinion that were 90 percent above Gullah Geechee folks that are now less than tenth if that one of the interesting things that we picked up on is that you know just one owner who owns one small part of it can kind of force the entire thing to be sold how does that even work the law allows that allowed just simply all you have to do is allege that you have an interest that interest maybe one hundredth of a percent errors properties are divided into shares with each family member holding a certain portion of ownership the law allows anyone owning part of an heirs property to force the other owners to sell the entire property by going to a judge and asking for their dollar value of their share technically other heirs who want to keep the land could buy out their share but in reality if you have the means to purchase that share on the open market it's just too expensive and because there are so many owners the land often can't be subdivided the only practical solution is to sell the land at a court auction or just go along with development what's unique about delegating people we have more ears outside of South Carolina many cases these ears have lost contact with South Carolina never been to South Carolina don't know anything about South Carolina but legally they have an interest in that property in the end Gullah people are forced off the land they own to make way for resort communities they can't afford to live in Adolphe Brown is a real estate broker on Hilton Head Island here's a piece right now as you see this in for sale sign this is all the answer you can almost tell it by the mobile homes like you'll see you know a bunch of mobile homes you know together that's a good indication that you're on a tract of land that's is from he showed us a piece of Ayers property he's planning to develop some distant relatives who live out of state recently decided they wanted to work with that off to develop the land forcing the sale of the entire property and displacing relatives who live there some of the people don't want to sell obvious because they they've lived here their whole lives you can see there's a lot of mobile homes so they're 19 in total that you know there's gonna be an issue with and so you know what do we do what do they what do they do their only option would be to buy those relatives out but they don't have the means to do so waterfront property here it can go for $800,000 in acre Adolph moved to Hilton Head from New York ten years ago when he discovered he owned shares of an Aires property some of the work you've done it it's kind of got you a bad rap on the island right now yeah yeah yeah it has it has an island a lot of the Islanders think I'm the I'm the bad guy on the city slicker Bambuser dude you know anything people here feel like they're their entire culture is being sold along with this property that the Gullah culture is basically fading away as more developers buy up these these lands through the era's property right I mean do you understand that anger I understand the anger and I understand the Gullah culture my grandmother was a midwife on Hilton Head so almost every african-american of that was born from in the 60s 50s 40s she brought them into the world that the problem comes in when the world changed my family doesn't barter with food they go to regular jobs and have nine two fives and they've gone to college and they work fortune 500 companies now so it's kind of I mean you can see the division like I'm sure there are people who think of this as like like a boon just like they won the lottery almost and those others who think of it as I am losing my way of life I'm losing my home right I'm trying to rectify those two situations I mean what solution can you come up with the only solution I've ever seen is to develop it and I give people this analogy of the American Indians that were you know downtown Wall Street they had the teepees there they had little communities could you imagine today there being 20 acres that's Indian and reserved in Wall Street if that one can't happen that was hundreds of years ago what I'm saying is I that you have to be progressive or it will you you will get run over taxed out moved out eventually it will happen up the coast the once quiet community of Mount Pleasant recently became the ninth fastest-growing city in the country the Phillips community settled by former slaves of the Phillips plantation is one of two Gullah communities left there so we're in Phillips community right now which is a Gullah community right outside Charleston and this kind of used to be a really isolated area but now basically what you have is all these developments that have sprung up around it so it's kind of like a doughnut hole so it's only really a question of time how much longer that people here can hold out before they're either priced out or their homes are bought out from underneath them Lawrence Palmer I spent his whole life here when I was growing up there's a close-knit community or someone who got a house to be built everybody join it and help that person build that house going up to pay a dime in time to come around to you or the community get together and do the same thing to you now it seems like a lot of people are trying to get this property right here oh yeah there are moving in varies swiftly and are people trying to actively get your land right now are they trying to buy your lands oh yeah you try to buy my property or several time I told the noise nut and seal when I should die I hope that some of the family member would step up and not try to keep it Richard generation this community was one big family but now the community is far divided everybody is all the more like an individual number one looking out for number one the hecklers the rest as the push to sell keeps on building the Gullah are running out of options if we can situation on the fussy Allen right now a lot of Native people are gone the few pockets of of Gullah Geechee on st.

Simon is drying up like the water of california today it's all but non-existent how can we stop this we don't really have a community ardent I guess we have maybe a few neighborhoods but not a real community and I think we need to develop and that's one way to stop people from encroaching on your land we need to meet with each other we don't we want me right after the funeral when emotions are out of control ever seriously roll you across to within the black community without truck we can't we definitely can't be unified I mean in my family we lost a lot of land but but the thing of it is is like I started something new I started buying land and I want it because I know the importance of land and I want to keep it in the family I want to keep it going this is something that we all need to take with us and to explore ways in which we can do that and one of the ways that we may have to do this is the African spirit and let's see whether or not the African Spirit can calm and some knowledge or wisdom into this problem that we are having as a culture and si as a people in addition to these community meetings the Gullah turned to traditions rooted in those their ancestors brought here more than 200 years ago the name of God most gracious most merciful the kept accent praises to God our mighty Lord of all the worlds master of the Day of Judgment thee do we worship and die aid with the seat show we the squint way the way of those into Goa scream I mean in some respects it's a genuine vacation story one group pushed out by a wealthier one but given the land and people involves a piece of American history is being lost and when it's gone it's gone

As found on YouTube

Fiddler on the Roof (1/10) Movie CLIP – Tradition! (1971) HD

Fiddler on the Roof sounds crazy now but here in our little village of Anatevka you might say every one of us is a fiddler on the roof trying the scratch out a pleasant simple tune without breaking his neck it isn't easy you may ask why do we stay up there if it's so dangerous we stay because Anatevka is our home and how do we keep our balance that I can tell you in one word tradition because of our traditions we've kept our balance for many many years you're not a delta we have traditions for everything how to sleep how to eat how to work how to wear clothes for instance we always keep our heads covered and always wear a little prayer shawl this shows our constant devotion to God you may ask how did this tradition get started I'll tell you I don't know but it's a tradition and because of our traditions every one of us knows who he is and what God expects him to do night must come before a living Peter by the children same name right as master of the house to buy the world let's go the way to make a proper home apply lotion Pumas raise a family and so pompous featuring the whole people three I started Hebrew school at ten I learned a trade I hear they teach

As found on YouTube