A Brief History of the English Language

now today I want to talk about the history of the English English language because usually when I talk about the English language I say English is really inconsistent language it has a lot of grammatical inconsistencies people always say well what do you mean by this I don't get it what do you mean by grammatical inconsistencies so I'm gonna give a history of the English language and explain what I mean by that now originally Britain and Ireland and this lot of France used to be called Gaul a lot of that was inhabited by a Celtic speaking people the Celts like the kind of spell spoke like an old form of Welsh their old form of Gaelic and that kind of stuff and what happened is the Romans they kind of made their way conquering people up through France and into England and they had established settlements and towns and they kind of pushed the Roman language on the Celts and so the Celts kind of picked up some Roman words and when they were in England they started having a problem like a lot of barbarians are like coming down and like attacking villages and causing problems for the Romans and Celtic people that lived there so what they did is they hired German what is now modern-day Germany like barbarians to go over there and help with the problem so they hired like mercenaries to go fight barbarians fighting other barbarians really and once the mercenaries had won they were given land so they could stay and live in England and Britain and they thought that was pretty cool they stayed there but the thing is is you know they invited their friends and family right so all these anglo-saxon people from like the Netherlands and parts of Belgium and Germany and a little bit of Denmark all these people from this kind of general area they all came and basically invaded Britain and took it completely over it set for Wales all those Celtic and some Romans they got pushed into Wales that's why in Wales they speak Welsh you're not English because when they came they took everything over and pushed them all into Wales and those original anglo-saxon people I mean they were the ones who spoke old English that's what Old English developed from their language and Old English is I mean a lot of people don't know what it is but it's really just Old English it's what these people spoke and famous probably the most famous piece of literature that's written in old english is Beowulf the poem epic poem of Beowulf and about 5000 of modern English words are derived from Old English and remain unchanged and in common use today I'll give you an example of some old English words strong water nostril RAF no from rear as in raise sick bathe craft hide as in like skin hide ditch shirt shatter shift those are all words an Old English of origin and during this time period many Latin words made their way in English vocabulary such a street kitchen kettle Cup cheese wine and the word for Germany Germany itself is a Latin word it comes from Germania which was Latin and during this time period like about the ninth century many Vikings we spoke old norse that would became from denmark norway and sweden they spoke old norse they came and tried to invade Britain and this invasion because they stayed there for a while brought in some Norse words into the English English shut the sky egg cake skin leg window husband fellow skill anger flat odd ugly get to give take raise call die those are all Old Norse words and in 1066 the Normans people from like northern France they conquered England and this had a huge huge impact on the English language this time period after the Normans conquered in 1066 it's called a like Norman English or Middle English it's when that time first started and many many French words found their way into English even if there is already a English word for them such as like replied when English has answered her English has smell French oder English yearly French annual and there's many other ones too like Rome Chamber wish desire might power so a lot of French words got sucked into English and then about 1500 that's what's considered modern English from 1500 on and even so throughout this whole time period all the way up till now English has so many foreign words that have made their way into English that it's really not even English if that makes sense because Old English was like pure English but since then so many people have conquered England that it's remained forever changed and you get so many synonyms and like skin and hide and all that kind of stuff answer reply in our language that just makes it so weird and so inconsistent I mean we even have a lot of Spanish words in our language like cargo sombrero patio armada gorilla is in like a guerrilla fighter like tactics military thing we have our mod Armada Plaza Canyon rodeo Pueblo vanilla I'm a Dillo tornado embargo bonanza those are all words and that are Spanish in origin we also have many words that are Greek in origin for instance clue I think that's Greek for ball of yarn and that comes from Greek story with the labyrinth and the guy trying to find the minute ah he had a ball a yarn that he would leave string so he could find his way back out the labyrinth so I mean we got words from like just about every language I mean even Hungarian we have goulash from Hungarian we have blitzkrieg and sauerkraut bratwurst from Germany and there's just so many more in English that just it makes it kind of an inconsistent language where we we have so much influence from other languages just so much I mean like I said they got the Norse you got the Roman influence of Latin you got the French influence I mean for instance Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare that is written in what's considered a Norman English or Middle English it was written right before the 1500s so right before it would be considered modern English and I mean still a lot of it is pretty understandable to someone who speaks English today but there's still a lot of things that are really different like valve and the words that are not in English anymore so I guess that's pretty much the history of English and what I mean by the grammatical inconsistencies is for instance there's so many like weird spellings that are pronounced way different than they look just inconsistent in that like information for instance it's like a T like how does that work that's I think pretty sure that's a French in origin so you have all these weird things with English like that and the grammar is just weird and the words are weird so I guess that was basically the point of this video is showing you why English is different like that what makes it unique compared to other languages and of course everyone knows that from England English spread to Canada to America to Australia to New Zealand to the Bahamas and many other places it's also widely spoken in parts of Africa I have a friend from Kenya who says in school they speak English they learn English and usually they did better on their English tests than they did their Swahili tests so I guess that's the history of English and that's what I mean by grammatical inconsistencies with all these different words from different languages that made their way into English most words are foreign and not English in origin

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Talking About Your Vacation in English – Spoken English Lesson

Hello, my name is Gina! Welcome to Oxford Online English In this lesson, you will learn how to talk about your vacation in English Where did you go on your last vacation? And what did you do there? Have you had a good time? In this lesson, you will learn to answer all these and other questions in natural language And clear. Did you notice that Jack said Holiday while I said Vacation? There is a difference between British English and American English But the two words have the same meaning Let's start with some simple examples to get you started with your answer Begin your answers by saying where you have gone, with whom, and how long have you stayed For example: I went to the countryside with my family for a few weeks I went to Thailand with a group of friends for 10 days Sweetie and I went to Rome for a long weekend A long weekend means from 3 days to 4 days, and it could be from Friday to Monday or from Saturday to Monday.

Maybe because Monday is a public holiday What about you? Where did you go on your last vacation? Who did you go with, and how long did you stay? Stop the video and make your own sentence And if you want to practice more, write that sentence And if you want to practice more and more, write 3 sentences! OK? Next, we'll see how you can talk about what you did on your vacation What do you prefer to do on vacation? Do you prefer a lively vacation? Maybe a lot of sports, adventures and activities? Or maybe you are more cultural? Or maybe you just love to relax on the beach Whatever your preference, it is great to be able to say how you spent your time in the break Let's look at some examples and vocabulary that you can use: I went to the countryside with my family for a few weeks Most of the time, we went climbing mountains and nearby plateaus We also hang out in the village, playing cards and eating.

Do you like climbing? Hiking often means hiking in hills and mountains. When you hang out, it means you're spending time aimlessly. When you say you are hanging out in the village, it means that you are spending time adequately Comfortable (no commitments or goals) Let's look at the second example: I went to Thailand with a group of friends for 10 days We visited the famous places in Bangkok: the Great Palace, Wat Pho, and so on .. Then we went to the beaches to have some sun, swim and a cocktail! Sightseeing means visiting the famous landmarks of the city We can say go sightseeing or do sightseeing For example, when you do sightseeing in Paris, you will often visit the Eiffel Tower The Louvre Museum, the Cathedral of Notre Dame (Our Lady), and so on ..

Hit the beaches is a totally unofficial phrase to say we have visited the beaches You can also say Hit the bars and Hit the clubs (we went to bars or clubs). Using Hit suggests that you are going to a party or having a good time, which is usually why Do not use it with other places Let's do another example together: Darling and I have gone to Rome for a long weekend We went on a walking tour to the city center and the Vatican Most of the time, we went to restaurants and cafes and tried local food As much as our stomach has endured! When you go on a tour, for example on foot, you hire a guide Often, tours are in large groups Would you prefer to go on a guided tour, or would you like to explore on your own? Sample means to try different things The phrase We sampled as much of the local cuisine as we could mean we tried Several dishes Well, let's move on to you! What did you do on your last vacation? Did you climb mountains? Or did you visit famous places? Or have you tried delicious meals? Try to make two or three sentences Use the terminology from this video if you can! Stop the video, and answer! Now, let's see how you can describe the place you visited in more detail Can you think of three characteristics of the place you visited last weekend? Here, avoid using generic adjectives like nice or good Try to find specific qualities Your answer will be more interesting! Let's look at an example: I went to the countryside with my family for a few weeks We stayed in a nice village surrounded by nice mountain scenery.

We stayed in a beautiful village surrounded by wonderful mountain scenery Did you notice what we meant? The use of nice does not give a rich meaning to a sentence This is not a good example How can we make it better? Here is one way to improve it: I went to the countryside with my family for a few weeks We stayed in a very picturesque, sleepy village surrounded by some dramatic mountain scenery. (We stayed in a picturesque lazy village, surrounded by dramatic mountain scenery!) What do you think dramatic scenery is? It means that the mountains were dazzling and beautiful The word picturesque is synonymous with beautiful When we say something is picturesque, it is as beautiful as a painting That's why you can use picturesque to talk about scenes and locations The word sleepy means that the village was quiet and calm You can notice that using specific qualities such as picturesque, sleepy or dramatic render Your answer is more expressive and beautiful Of course, to talk about different places you need different expressions Let's look at another example: I went to Thailand with a group of friends for 10 days Bangkok is a city with a lot of cultures, but a little fuss, because there Lots of things going on! Then we went to Krabi, which has amazing beaches! Do you know the meaning of the key words in this sentence? Cosmopolitan describes a city that has many people and cultures together Overwhelming describes something severe For example, we say Overwhelming city when there are a lot of people, noise, and landmarks And smells around you.

In other words, there are so many things to understand that you are confused about where to look! Stunning means very beautiful Let's do another example together: Sweetie and I have gone to Rome for a long weekend It's an amazing place, but it's actually packed with tourists too The best thing was the food, it was out of this world! Here we used terms like fascinating, touristy, and out of this world Can you explain what these words mean? The word fascinating means very cool The word touristy means that the place has become very touristy (it often comes as a negative adjective) Often when you describe a place that is touristy, this means that it has lost part of its object Natural Finally, when you describe something as out of this world it is very good And you really enjoyed it.

Now, it's your turn Can you describe the place you visited on your last vacation? You can use the words and terms from this video, and you can also use your own words and phrases Own Try to use at least 3 interesting adjectives in your sentences Pause the video and do it now, either in writing or orally how are you? Remember that you can always return any section if you find it difficult Now, how can you talk about what you liked and didn't like on vacation? What is the best vacation you have had in your life? What about the worst vacation you've ever had? What made these vacations so good or so bad? Let's see how you can talk about the pros and cons of your vacation Here is the first example: I went to the countryside with my family for a few weeks It was a relaxing trip, but at the end I got really bored This is fine, but it is best if you can add a reason: I went to the countryside with my family for a few weeks It was a relaxing trip, but in the end I got really bored, because all the days were very similar What does Each day was pretty similar? do you know? It means that you did the same things every day, so the days were not varied From day to day Let's look at the following example: I went to Thailand with a group of friends for 10 days I loved Crabi, because it didn't look like any of the places I went before But I didn't like Bangkok It's a nice place, but it's big and very noisy for me When we say it was like nowhere I'd ever been before that means it's where we went It was unique.

We wasn't so keen on to say we didn't like the place that much But in the past tense for example: I was not very impressed with the food in the hotel I was not very impressed with the museums; I didn't think it was so wonderful Adding for my tastes After you've provided your opinion, suggests that that's just your point You can use it after the negative opinion, to reduce its impact a little on the listener For example: It is a beautiful area, but it is very civilized and very touristy to me Adding for my tastes makes it lighter and less straightforward Well, let's do another example together: Sweetie and I have gone to Rome for a long weekend I think I liked the atmosphere for the most part Walking the small streets in the city center made me feel like I was in an old movie However, I wished it was less crowded Here you can use I liked …

Most of all to post your favorite thing On your vacation Use I wish with past perfect (had done) to talk about something I wished to change it if I could For example: I wished we had more time to explore the city I wish we hadn't stayed in that miserable hotel Well, it's your turn again! What were the things that you liked and did not like on your last vacation? Compose at least two or three sentences and say it out loud! Remember to give reasons that support your opinion Now, you must be ready to put all of these things into one long answer To make a longer answer, you need: Because you say where you went, with whom, and how long you stayed Say what you did Describe the place Talk about what you liked and disliked Let's do an example using the terms from this video: I went to Thailand with a group of friends for 10 days We visited the famous landmarks in Penakuk: the Great Palace, Wat Pho, and so on …

Then we visited the beaches in Krabi to have some sun, swim and cocktails! Bangkok is a cosmopolitan city but a little noisy because it is There was a lot of things going on around us! Krabi has stunning beaches, and I loved it because it didn't look like any of the places That I visited before On the other hand, I didn't like Bangkok very much It's a great place but a little big and noisy to me Have you seen that by using simple phrases and wording, we can construct a long, detailed and clear answer? We added some related words, but other than that we used only the terms From this lesson Let's do another example: This time, we will be using new ideas: I went to Siberia on my own for three weeks I hiked the area, climbed camping, and explored the countryside I was near Lake Baikal, which is a large lake surrounded by mountains and villages On its sides It was beautiful in its wild environment, and the emptiness gave me a real feeling of loneliness and isolation I loved the people I met, they were very welcoming and open minded In contrast, although it was summer, the nights were very cold I wished I had a warmer sleeping bag This time, I used new terminology and ideas, but I still followed Same installation.

Now, can you make an answer longer than this? Have a try! If you find it difficult, repeat the video or use a dictionary to get the vocabulary you want Practice your answer many times until you can say it fluently and with comfort You can talk about any vacation you want, not just the last one If you want a response to your answer, put it in the comments! We will get back to you and show you how you can improve And remember, you can find other free videos on the site Oxfordonlineenglish.com thanks for watching! 217 00: 18: 32,500 -> 00: 00: 00,000 See you next time!

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